Printing Jargon Buster

Due to their very nature, the print industry and offline marketing are intertwined. We thought we would put together a jargon buster for the print industry (just like our marketing jargon buster).  To use this Jargon buster you can either scroll down or press Control + F or Cmd + F on Macs. Type the word in the dialogue box and hit return. It should take you straight to the word and definition. 

Word / PhraseDefinition
A SHEET The reference sometimes used for a carbonless top sheet (i.e. the first part of a carbonless multipart form, CB coated).
ABRASION RESISTANCE The resistance of an ink to removal by scratching or rubbing.
ABSORBENCY The extent to which a paper will take up and hold a liquid.
ABSORPTION The first stage of drying an ink when printed onto a porous material.
ACID-FREE PAPER In principle, paper which does not contain any free acid. Special precautions are taken during manufacture to eliminate any active acid that might be in the furnish, in order to increase the longevity of the finished paper.
ADDITIVE Any non-fibrous component of the stock or material added in small quantity to a coating, in order to confer special properties to the paper.
ADHESION The bond between ink and the material on which it is printed.
AIRMAIL PAPER Paper made in the lightest substance consistent with strength and a good surface, for reasons of postage costs. Generally produced in white, off white or a pale blue, usually below 40 g/m2.
ALUM A term commonly, but mistakenly, applied in the paper industry to various qualities of Aluminium Sulphate.
ALUMINIUM PAPER Packaging paper made by mixing aluminium powder into the furnish or by coating or laminating the sheet with aluminium powder.
AMBIENT CONDITIONS The conditions surrounding a particular piece of equipment, such as temperature and humidity.
ANTI SET-OFF SPRAY A device used on the delivery end of a printing machine to prevent set-off by projecting a fine spray, of liquid or powder at the sheet.
ANTIQUE A quality bulky paper, particularly opaque, with a rough surface finish. It can be made in white or in colours, be deckle-edged, and either laid or wove. A good printing surface is a feature of this grade, which is often used for more expensive books.
APPARENT DENSITY The quotient of the grammage of a paper and its thickness in micrometers.
AQUEOUS Aqueous inks or other coatings have formulations based on water, as opposed to organic solvents.
ARCHIVAL PAPER Paper intended for permanent records and usually subject to a specification covering strength and chemical properties. Often used for legal documents.
ART PAPER This is a generic term given to woodfree coated papers, which has traditionally referred to papers in the upper quality bracket and which have a highly polished surface. Today the term is less used because of the introduction of more categories in the sector. However, “Real Art” is still used for those woodfree coated papers, gloss or matt, which are considered to be of the very highest quality.
ARTWORK Original illustrative copy or typesetting, ready for reproduction, at pre-film stage.
ARTWORK ON DISK Complete, requiring no edits, ready to output to final film or direct to plate, and provided in recognised commercial software such as Illustrator, Freehand, Coreldraw, Pagemaker, In Design, Quark Express, or Photoshop.
B SHEET The reference sometimes used for a carbonless middle sheet of a carbonless multipart set, (CFB coated).
BACK UP To print on the reverse side of a printed sheet.
BANKS AND BONDS A range of printing and writing papers, the better qualities of which were at one time made largely from rags. The heavier substance papers, above a substance of about 60 g/m2, are often used for correspondence and letterheads, and are known as bonds, while the lighter weights called banks used largely for file copy papers have less use today with the introduction of the automated office.
BASE BOARD Board intended for coating, laminating, etc.
BASE PAPER Name given to the base sheet for off-machine coating, or paper intended to be converted, e.g. by a coating process or by impregnation. The term is sometimes used also for paper to which a layer of other material (aluminium, plastics, etc.) is bonded. Also called Body Paper or Rawstock.
BASIS WEIGHT The weight of paper defined in grams per square metre (g/m2).
BIBLE PAPER Very thin printing papers. Originally made specifically for Bibles and prayer books, this grade of paper is also used for other commercial purposes, such as dictionaries, where many pages are required with an overall low volume. Bible paper is also known as India paper.
BINDER The adhesive used to stick the layers of coating together and to the paper or board surface. The most frequently used binder is starch, but synthetic binders are also used to give improved performance.
BIODEGRADABLE A substance which will decompose as the result of action by bacteria and other living organisms.
BLADE-COATED PAPER Paper coated by a process in which the freshly applied wet coating is smoothed and the excess removed by a thin, flexible metal blade which bears on the coated surface
BLANKET CYLINDER The cylinder on a litho printing machine, covered with a rubber (or similar) blanket, which conveys the image from the plate to the sheet.
BLEACHING A chemical treatment used to whiten, brighten and improve the performance of pulp.
BLEED The part of a printed image beyond the area to which the finished sheet will be cut.
BLIND EMBOSSED A logo, text or design which has been relief stamped into a sheet of paper, onto which no printing ink has been added.
BLISTER PACK This term describes a packaging system which is a combination of board and plastics. The product is sealed to the board by a transparent plastic film. This system is often used for small products of difficult shapes and sizes.
BLOTTINGS Highly absorbent papers which can be watermarked, white or in colours. With the advent of the ball-point pen, the original use where hand writing ink is absorbed has greatly reduced demand.
BOARDS A term applied to paper above an accepted weight. The substance when paper becomes known as board varies a great deal between manufacturers and can vary from as low as 180 g/m2 to as high as 250 g/m2. The lower substance definition usually refers to boards in the graphic sector.
BOOKJACKET PAPER Term applied to the printed dust cover or wrapper used to cover books or similar publications; usually a high quality coated grade in the higher substance range. Also called Jacket Paper.
BROMIDE A black and white positive or proof on photographic paper. Traditionally made by contact printing negative film onto white photographic paper (bromide paper) this term now also encompasses positives made by Contact Transfer (CT) or Photomechanical Transfer (PMT).
BULK A term applied to the substance, thickness and feel of a paper.
BULK PACKED ON PALLETS (BPOP) A method of packing paper in which the sheets are not wrapped in parcels but stacked on the pallet, tabbed at the required intervals to indicate quantity and over-wrapped.
CARBON PAPER A thin woodfree or part mechanical paper coated on one side with colouring agent or carbon black dispersed in a suitable medium, e.g. wax, which is transferred to a sheet of paper underneath when pressure is applied.
CARBONLESS COPY PAPER NCR. This consists of two sheets of paper, the underside of the top sheets (called CB for coated back) is coated with colourless dye in minute gelatine capsules. The underneath sheet (CF coated front) is coated with a reactive chemical which turns blue or black when mixed with the colourless dye. Pressure from a pen or typewriter on the top sheet causes the gelatine capsules to break, the dye and chemical then mix and the blue or black copy appears on the bottom sheet. There is also an intermediate paper (CFB coated front and back), used between the top and bottom sheets to make multi-part sets. Some types of carbonless paper are not separately coated but incorporate both parts of the dye mechanism within the one sheet.
CARTRIDGE PAPER Slightly rough coated or uncoated printing surfaced paper used for a variety of graphic purposes such as envelopes. Generally noted for good dimensional stability, high opacity and good bulk.
CB, CF, CFB See Carbonless Paper.
CHEQUE OR SECURITY PAPERS The grade carrying this term is printed on a paper with a sensitised body as a protection against fraud. Of good quality, the paper is chemically treated in such a way as to show any sign of unauthorised change. Additionally, the paper can contain certain fibres that can only be detected under special light. Another, cheaper type is used for receipt books, forms and coupons.
CHINA CLAY A naturally occurring mineral, consisting essentially of hydrated silicate of alumina, used as a filler or as a component in paper coating.
CLEAN EDGE Refers to a very fine perforation line which simulates the effect of a guillotine cut edge (Also known as Micro-Perf).
COATED PAPER OR BOARD Material coated on one or both sides with a mixture of china clay, latex and other loadings to fill up surface pits and improve the printing surface. The process can be accomplished either on-line on the papermaking machine or away from the papermaking machine, as a separate operation. There are a variety of coating methods, these include: roll coating, blade coating, air knife coating and brush coating, or combinations of these types. A very high quality form of off
COCKLE Local deformation of a sheet of paper due to unequal shrinkage giving it a slightly crumpled appearance.
COLOUR CORRECTION Method used to improve the reproduction of the colour original.
COMPUTER TO PLATE Process in which printing plates are imaged from a digital file instead of using film.
CONSTAT Abbreviation for continuous stationery.
CONTINUOUS STATIONERY A grade widely used on modern high speed accounting and similar machines. The paper is supplied in reel form and along with the printing process many finishing techniques can be used, such as perforation and special folds. A particular use is for invoices, statements and similar documents, when it is normally fan-folded.
CROMALIN A high quality proof used as an accurate colour guide.
C-SHEETThe reference used for a carbonless bottom sheet (the bottom sheet of a multi part set) (CF coated).
CTP Computer to plate. Printing an image directly from a computer to polyester or metal plates.
CURL Sheet distortion leading to a tendency to roll up.
CUTTING TO REGISTER Operation of slitting and cutting watermarked paper so that the watermark design falls in a given position in every sheet.
DENSITOMETER An instrument for measuring the density of a colour or differences in tone.
DENSITY The density of a printed image.
DESENSITISING AREA An area on the surface side of a CF or CFB carbonless product which has been rendered inert to producing a carbonless copy.
DIE CUTTABILITY Suitability of paper and board for die cutting into blanks of a given shape.
DIGITAL PAPER Paper specifically designed for digital printing technology.
DIGITAL PRINTING The printing process where an image is applied to the substrate directly from a digital file rather than using plates or film.
DIGITAL PROOFING Proofing directly from digital files instead of using film to create proofs.
DOT GAIN The increase in size of a dot in a tone print that takes place when it is printed, as compared with its size on the photographic positive or negative.
DOUBLE BUMP The application of two layers of ink to achieve greater opacity or more intense colour.
DOWN TIME None productive time when a paper or machine is being maintained or cleaned.
DPI Stands for Dots Per Inch, usually in the context of semitone or process printing, which refers to the frequency of dots appearing. The greater the DPI, the finer the print.
DUCT The trough on a printing machine, usually including an adjustable blade, which contains the supply of ink and by means of which the ink is presented to the duct roller.
DUCT ROLLER The cylinder in the duct of a printing machine, which, in conjunction with the adjustable knife blade, regulates the amount of ink applied to the feed roller.
DUMMY An unprinted representation of the text pages of a book or magazine made by folding and collating sheets of the intended quality, size and grammage of paper so that an idea may be formed of the general appearance and thickness of the final result.
EMBOSSED PAPER Paper on which a raised and/or depressed design has been produced by pressure, generally between an engraved or otherwise patterned steel roll or plate and a paper of cotton backing or “bowl”.
EMULSIFICATION Dispersion of water into the ink during printing. An excess of this may cause printing difficulties.
EMULSION COATED PAPER Paper coated by any suitable coating process with plastics or resign applied in the form of an emulsion.
ENCODING Characters that are printed, invariably on cheques, which contain iron, and which can be recognised by MICR automatic readers. MICR stands for Magnetic Ink Character recognition.
FANFOLD A web of paper folded into connected sheets by alternate folds across the web.
FASTNESS Resistance of colour to fading.
FILLER A material, generally white mineral matter such as china clay or calcium carbonate, which is added to the paper furnish to increase opacity, improve flatness and allow a smoother finish to be obtained.
FOUNTAIN SOLUTION Water, with additives, for application to the lithographic plate on a printing machine.
GHOSTING There are two types of Ghosting. One is an image which appears as a lighter area on a subsequent print, due to local blanket depressions from previous image areas, another is the spoiling of a print by an image on it of work on the reverse side which has interfered with its drying, so that differences in the trapping for some colours or variations in gloss are apparent.
GLOSS Gloss can refer to the reflectivity of paper itself or the the printed result on it.
GRADUATED SCREEN A ‘screen’ is a series of ink ‘dots’, printed on to a paper which gives the appearance of a solid colour. The depth of screen colour can be deepened by increasing the dot frequency (see DPI), or the converse. A graduated screen is one where the DPI is varied across the screen so that you get a fading/deepening effect across the printing.
GRAIN DIRECTION A term applied to the machine direction of papers or boards, as opposed to the cross direction.
GRAPHIC PAPERS Papers for printing and writing.
GRAVURE PRINTING Process in which recesses on a printing cylinder are filled with ink and the surplus removed by a blade. The paper contacts the cylinder and ‘ lifts’ the ink from the recesses before depositing it on the paper. Generally used for long-run printing such as magazines and catalogues.
GREEN PAPER Immature paper which has not been conditioned or had the opportunity to mature naturally.
GREYBOARD A board made entirely from waste paper. It can be lined or unlined and is used for a variety of packaging purposes.
GRIPPER A device on a printing machine for holding the sheet during the printing or finishing process.
GRIPPER ALLOWANCE The margin of paper along the gripper edge of the sheet which is held by the grippers and which therefore cannot be printed.
GSM/g/m2 Both stand for grammes per square metre, g / m2 is the correct definition by paper makers but GSM is used more frequently. 60 gsm is a paper which is lighter than an 80 gsm paper.
GUMMED PAPER Many different papers are used for this quality. Suitable body papers are web coated with various types of adhesive which will adhere to a variety of different surfaces when dampened.
HALF – TONEThe representation of tonal gradation by an image composed of dots of varying sizes, the centres of which are equidistant.
HALF PERFA perforation line, usually across the form but not absolutely so, that does not cross the full dimension of the form.
HALF TONE SCREENA grid in which the lines and spaces are of equal thickness, and equidistant, used in photographing an original for plate or block making.
HATCHING The printing of irregular patterns of ink, usually to the surface of sheets of paper within a multipart set, which render the image created unreadable. This is to ‘hide’ certain information which is required NOT to be read by certain recipients of forms.
HICKEY A spot on a printed sheet caused by dust, link or ink imperfections; particularly noticeable on solids and half tones.
HIDDEN ENTRY A multipart form which has information ‘ entered’ into a 2nd, 3rd, 4th etc leaf, but where that same information is not imprinted on to the first leaf of the form, i.e. the entry is ‘ hidden by virtue of not having a sight of the information on the top copy, but which is to be seen on subsequent leaves of the set.
INDEX BOARD This grade is usually a pulp board manfactured with a good surface suitable for printing and writing. They may be coloured as well as white, and are supplied in cut sizes.
INK RUB A defect, often associated with matt coated papers, in which parts of a dried ink film are removed by pressure or friction from another surface.
INKJET PRINTING A printer that sprays drops of ink onto the substrate to form an image.
IVORY BOARD High quality board made in white or colours with a bright, clear appearance, particularly used for visiting cards and similar high class printed work Original Ivory Board was and still is made in Holland, although the grade is now made in many countries
JUST IN TIME PRINTING Allows documents to be stored digitally and then produced at a given time. This type of process allows for only the number of copies needed to be printed.
KEYLINE A line drawn on artwork which indicates an area for tint-laying, positioning of half-tones, etc. where this must be done at a later stage.
KNOCKING UP Aligning the edges of a pile of paper.
KRAFT PAPER Chemical wood pulp produced by digesting wood by the sulphate process. Originally a strong unbleachable
LABEL PAPERS A large variety of plain or coloured papers which are made to be gummed.
LAID LINES A continuous watermark consisting of very close parallel lines, generally associated with spaced lines called chain lines (q.v.) at tight angles to them.
LAID PAPER Usually printing or writing paper with a ribbed appearance caused by the use of a wire roll or dandy roll at the wet end of the paper machine.
LAMINATE A converted product made by combining together suitable paper or board either with other paper or board or with other material such as plastics or metal foil, generally by means of an adhesive, to form a product with particular qualitites.
LAMINATION The process of laminating paper or board with other materials.
LASER PRINTING Images are produced through electronic impulses using an intense beam of focused light.
LAYOUT An overall term to describe the design of the form.
LETTERPRESS Printing from images with a raised surface which are inked and impressed directly onto the surface of the material.
LIGHT FAST Inks that will not fade to any significant extent even after prolonged exposure to light are termed light-fast.
LINE PERF A perforated line which runs along the length of a form. Usually to be used as a separate description of a perf line in the middle of the form, rather than perf lines that appear at the side of the form for detaching the sprocket punched holes (see side perfs.)
LINE WORK A printing term used to simply describe printing in which lines of ink, or perhaps solid blocks of ink appear.
LINT Surface fibres released from paper during printing.
LISTING PAPER A form of continuous paper, used for computer listings, punched with sprocket holes at the edges and traditionally printed with light green horizontal lines set to the same pitch as the printing device.
LITHOGRAPHIC PRINTING A flat printing process in which the non-image areas of the printing plate are made wettable and the image areas are made to repel water whilst attracting the printing medium (ink).
MAKE-READYTime spent preparing a machine to run a specific job. The cost of this non-productive time is normally passed on to the client, unlike down time.
MANILLA Originally paper made from pulp produced partly or entirely of manilla hemp, but now mostly composed of softwood kraft pulp.
MATT PAPER A coated paper with a dull smooth finish.
MICR Magnetic Ink Character Recognition Paper- usually a high quality bond paper with good surface characteristics and dimensional stability for printing with magnetic inks for computer sorting.
MICROPERF A very finely cut perforated edge, designed to simulate the effect of a guillotine cut edge. (Also known as clean edge).
MIS-REGISTERThe appearance of a printed image out of its correct position.
MOIRE A French word used to describe the type of pattern produced when printing two or more colours in half tone derived from screens, the angles of which differ by only a few degrees.
MOTTLE The appearance of irregular spots or blotches in a printed area that should be even in colour.
MULTIPART Refers to a business form which contains more than one leaf of paper (both NCR and OTC).
NCR No Carbon Required. This term has now been superceded by the term Carbonless.
NIP The pressure point between two rollers
OCR Optical Character Recognition Paper- similar to MICR paper.
OMR Optical Mark Recognition. It is the process whereby the typed or written position of a “mark” (i.e. a “tick”) on a piece of paper denotes an instruction to an electronic forms processing device. i.e. Lottery Ticket.
OTC One time carbon which is very thin carbon paper designed to be used within a form just one time.
OVER-RUNSheets or copies produced in excess of the required number.
PAGES Interpret pages as “sides”. i.e. a 2 page A4 is a double sided A4 sheet, a 4 page A4 is 4 sides of A4, i.e. an A3 double sided sheet folded in half.
PAPERMARK A mark placed in the paper after it has been made and not during the papermaking process. The mark can be produced through printing, chemical application or embossing. Some marks are good imitations of a watermark, but are imitations.
PARTICLE GUMMED A paper with a ‘lick and stick’ gummed coating on the reverse of the paper. Particle gumming results in a matt finish to the paper and is undetectable to the human eye.
PERFECTING Printing both sides of the substrate at the same pass through a printing machine.
PICKING The rupture of the surface of paper during manufacture or printing, which occurs when an external tensile force applied to the surface (eg from an ink which is too tacky) is greater than the cohesion of the paper.
PMS Abbreviation for Pantone Mixing System. This is an ink system where eight primary colours are mixed in defined ratios to achieve a specific colour. If a client asks for a specific Pantone Colour they will quote a Pantone Reference, i,e, PMS 357. All printers then understand the reference and know how to achieve the colour required.
PRIMARY COLOURS Standard ink colours that are supplied by ink manufacturers and which do not require mixing by a printer. See also Pantone. But primary colours need not be only the PMS primary colours. NB If your customer names a colour, eg Royal Blue, ask your printer to provide samples or proofs ot his colour for customer’s approval before printing is given the go ahead.
PROCESS PRINTING/PROCESS COLOURS All fine colour reproduction of photographs or artists works is printed via the ‘process’ method. Described simply, each photograph is rephotographed through red, blue, yellow and grey colour filters. This produces four images, which in turn leads to the production of four printing plates, one each of which will print a red, blue (cyan), yellow and black image. Each colour is superimposed, one on the other, to achieve a full colour effect, i.e. colour process printing is the reproduction of artwork via four colours only.
PROOF A pre-production print, made for the purpose of checking accuracy of layout, type matter, tone & colour reproduction.
PULP BOARD Also known as Printers Board, this grade is made from a single web of pulp on a papermarking machine, and is produced in various substances. Used for index cards and other general products, these boards may be white or coloured.
QUIRE Traditional term for one twentieth of a ream. The traditional ream was 480 sheets, so the quire was 24 sheets.
REAL ART See Art Paper
RECYCLED PAPER Paper made all or in part from recycled pulp.
RECYCLED PULP Pulp made from waste paper or board and used to make paper. It may or may not be de-inked. The quality of the fibres deteriorates with recycling, so paper cannot be endlessly recycled.
REEL TO REEL A machine on which the material is supplied in reel form and comes off the machine also in reel form.
REGISTER The accurate positioning of images on a sheet relative to one another.
REGISTER MARKS A set of fine line crosses or other suitable devices added to original artwork to provide reference points for accurate subsequent multi-colour printing or finishing processes.
REPORT GENERATOR An element within computer software which dictates the position and text of information to be produced by the output printer device on paper stationery. The computer programme which is the report generator determines how the business form is to be designed.
RETARDERS Slow drying solvents used for reducing the drying rate of an ink.
REVERSE SIDE PRINTING Printing on the underside of a leaf of paper.
REVERSED OUT PRINTING Text is normally printed directly onto paper. The process of ‘reversing out’ is to print a solid block of colour while leaving the text to be read as unprinted areas on the paper, i.e. ‘white’ text being read on a background of solid colour, seen often in titles.
RICE PAPER Sometimes a material which has the same appearance and purposes as paper is called ‘paper’. Rice paper is an example, since it is not paper but the sliced and flattened pith of a plant which grows in Taiwan; it is used by Chinese artists as a surface for painting.
ROYAL An older standard paper size, 480mm x 636mm.
RUNNABILITY The ability of a paper or board to perform on a printing press or on converting machinery without problems.
SCREEN RULING The number of lines per inch (or centimetre) on a half-tone or tint screen, equal to the number of dots per inch on the printed image.
SECONDARY COLOUR Colour made by mixing two primary colours.
SECURITY PAPER Paper which includes identification features such as metallic strips and watermarks to assist in detecting fraud and to prevent counterfeiting.
SELF ADHESIVE PAPER Used essentially for labelling purposes, this grade has a self-adhesive coating on one side and a surface suitable for printing on the other. The adhesive is protected by a laminate which enables the sheet to be fed through printers or printing machines, the laminate subsequently being stripped when the label is applied.
SELF-SEPARATING GLUE A carbonless cut set which has been tip glued using self separateing glue. A method of production rather than being of specific importance to the cut set. (known also as Fanapart glue).
SET-OFFThe unwanted transfer of printing ink from a printed sheet to a surface facing it. Not be be confused with Offset.
SHOW THROUGH The degree to which printing is visible through paper due to the low opacity of the paper.
SIDE PERF A perforated line running down the side of a continuous business form, usually 12/13mm in from each side of the form.
SINGLE PART A form which has onlhy one leaf of paper.
SMOOTHNESS The surface smoothness of paper is measured by the Bendtsen smoothness test. The test measures the amount of air escaping between an annular ring and the material surface, and results are measured in ml/min. Papers having a value higher than 50 are usually referred to as Matt, below 50 as Silk (sometimes called Satin or Velvet.)
SPROCKET (HOLE) The line of holes at each side of a continuous form to feed it through output printer devices.
STRIKE-THROUGHThe effect seen on the back of a sheet of paper due to excess penetration of printing ink or vehicle into or through the paper.
TACK The property which renders a film of printing ink sticky to the touch. It is governed by viscosity and adhesion.
THERMAL PAPER Thermal papers are high technology products. The base paper is first pre-coated and then treated with a special emulsion containing heat
TONER Chemical used to create an image in photocopying and laser printing.
UV VARNISHA varnish applied after printing, either as an overall finish to give a high gloss finish, or applied as a “spot” varnish to certain previously printed images, then cured using ultra violet light.
VEGETABLE PARCHMENT Paper that has been modified by the action of sulphuric acid, to give it a continuous texture, an increased surface hardness and a high degree of resistance to penetration by organic liquids and particularly fats, oils and greases. The structure also confers on the paper resistance to disintegration by water, even at boiling point.
VOID HICKEY A spot appearing as an inkless hole in a printed image.
WAFFLING Deformation of a sheet caused by excessive ink tack.
WATERMARK A deliberate design or pattern in paper which is visible when viewed by transmitted light or against a contrasting background, made by a dandy roll at the wet end of the papermaking machine.
WET ON WET The superimposing of successive colours while the printed colour is still wet, in one pass through a printing machine.
WORK AND TUMBLE Printing one side of a sheet, then turning the sheet over, retaining the same sidelay edge but reversing the front and back edges, and using the same printing plate.
WORK AND TURN –Printing one side of a sheet, then turning the sheet over, retaining the same front edge but moving the sidelay edge of the sheet to the other side of the press, and sing the same printing plate
WORK-AND-TWISTA method whereby a sheet is printed twice on the same side from a two-up form by reversing the sheet when feeding the second time so that the part already printed by the first section of the form will be printed by the second section and vice versa
WOVE PAPER Paper first made as early as 1754 by forming it on a mould with a cover made from woven wire cloth, hence the name. The paper has an even opacity and is a type in common use today. The term is usually applied to stationery grades which are usually either ‘wove’ or ‘laid’.
ZAHN CUPA type of cup used for the measurement of the viscosity of an ink by measuring the time taken for ink to empty through a small hole in the base of the cup.
The battle of acquisition and retention

The battle of acquisition and retention

“Acquiring a customer is 5x more expensive than keeping one!” bellowed the marketing guru from centre stage at every exhibition of the 21st century. The sentiment echoes throughout the industry as it becomes engrained in every marketing strategy the world over: but...